Most of affected populations in Kachin State/Northern Shan and Rakhine remain in camps with little or no prospects for solutions. The displacement has entered its 6th year in Kachin and Northern Shan and nearing 4 years in Rakhine. A situation, which was expected to be temporary, has progressively evolved into a protracted humanitarian crisis with more than 220,000 people living in camps and tens of thousands affected populations with host families or isolated villages bringing additional strains on both the host and displaced populations.
Early recovery needs: Having spent many years in displacement, many of the affected populations have been depended to a very large extent (Kachin and Northern Shan) or almost exclusively (Rakhine) on humanitarian relief assistance provided by various humanitarian organizations, national and international. This situation has reduced recovery options for a great majority of them. Very limited returns and relocations to other locations outside IDP camps have been observed such as in the Mrauk-U District in Rakhine and Myityina in Kachin State. The following are recovery issues:
Lack of sustainable livelihoods opportunities;
Absence or lack of access to basic services;
Restriction of the freedom of movement (specific to Rakhine);
Ongoing conflict or presence of armed actors around villages of origin;
Presence or suspicion of the presence of landmines;
Segregation of communities along with the resulting discrimination.
Country-level Early Recovery coordination structure: in 2013, the Humanitarian Country Team established an Early Recovery Sector to coordinate aspects of ER activities not falling under existing clusters and sectors. Among these were (i) livelihoods (agricultural and non-agricultural, (ii) emergency employment, (iii) reconstruction and rehabilitation and (iv) durable solutions.
At the end of 2014, the HCT decided to close the Early Recovery Sector and establish an Early Recovery Network (ERN) to further the mainstreaming of ER in other clusters and sectors.
Currently, an Early Recovery Network, under the leadership of the Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator (HC/RC) and facilitated by an Inter-Agency Early Recovery Advisor supports the HCT and the HC/RC and brings together humanitarian, development, private sector, civil society and government actors to coordinate recovery-related aspects of humanitarian response, create and sustain humanitarian-development synergies. Its membership includes cluster and sector leads and the private sector. An expanded ERN includes bilateral and multi-lateral development partners.
Identified Early Recovery gaps: While an important aspect of Early Recovery were integrated in the Food Security Sector (agricultural livelihoods and cash programming), a number of areas covered by the Early Recovery Sector have been orphaned. These include non-agricultural livelihoods, reconstruction and rehabilitation as well as the governance-related and a large part of capacity-building related activities directly linked to humanitarian response.