The crisis significantly eroded jobs, livelihoods sources and social safety nets for millions of Yemenis.
Lack of income is one of the main causes of the threatening famine and malnutrition throughout the country, in particular for vulnerable populations. Two in three people in Yemen cannot afford basic commodities or access to key services, including food and health care.
Around 3 million people remained displaced or continue to carry displacement-related vulnerabilities despite returning to their villages. Returnees still do not have the required accompaniment in support of a sustainable reintegration.
Public service delivery seriously regressed due to lack of salary payment for civil servants and ongoing hostilities. Landmines and other Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) continue to pose a serious threat to physical integrity of populations and prevent access to basic services and income opportunities.
An estimated 8.4 million conflict-affected individuals require livelihoods assistance to enhance their self-reliance on basic needs and reduce dependency on relief assistance. Among these, are populations from the 107 FSAC and Nutrition priority districts. Livelihoods needs estimations will be based on Food Security and Agriculture Cluster’s People in Acute Need across 22 Governorates.
3 million IDPs and returnees require livelihoods assistance and further support to access basic services to achieve durable solutions. Among the 2 million Internally Displaced Persons, access to income is the 2nd most important need (8 per cent of respondents) after access to food (74 per cent) according to the latest TFPM data.
Close to 1 million returnees also state access to income (14 per cent) and financial support (24 per cent) as the 2nd most pressing need after the need for food (46 per cent). Lack of disposable income, the depreciation of the Yemeni Riyal and the liquidity crisis as some of the main factors exacerbating food insecurity and malnutrition.
Around 26.4 million people live in Governorates potentially contaminated my landmines and/or ERWs.
More than two and a half years into the crisis, the situation of millions of Yemeni households has been in a continuous downward spiral, on top of pre-existing poverty-related vulnerabilities.
(a) Despite the increasing number of livelihoods restoration and protection initiatives under the 2017 YHRP and Humanitarian Plus projects, there has been a steady regression of the economic status of 78 per cent households - as supported by the March – July 2017 Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC). Access to income for populations in conflict affected areas remains one of the major factors contributing to the risk of famine and malnutrition. The lack of salary payment for civil servants, damages and losses resulting from the conflict as well as the collapse of major companies and factories impacted on the survival of many SMEs and the informal business sector, which constitutes 60-80 per cent of the economy of Yemen74. The collapse of the economy resulted in the increase of unemployment and the destruction of livelihoods.
(b) An estimated 3 million IDPs and returnees still carry displacement-related vulnerabilities. Prospects for sustainable solutions for around 2 million IDPs who remain displaced in remote locations within the current context of ongoing hostilities and resources scarcity. Approximately 1 million returnees still require accompaniment to achieving durable solutions, even months after returning to their locations of origin. Economic empowerment and access to key services through livelihoods and income generation opportunities would permit IDPs or returnees to meet their basic needs, which is a key step towards Durable Solutions.
(c) The presence of landmines and ERWs has been suspected or confirmed in 19 Governorates. The risk of landmines remains a serious threat to the lives of these populations, as well as constituting a major obstacle to livelihoods, employment recovery and access to public services.
(d) Local actors (national NGOs, CSOs and the Private Sector) still require capacity enhancement to support localization of humanitarian response and contribute to resilience enhancement.
Many families have lost their primary bread-winner. This forced many unskilled and uneducated females to seek alternative sources of income. This often creates tensions with and resentment of males in the household, exposing women to the risk of domestic violence. Women who head households without the presence of men also become vulnerable to exploitation, including sexual exploitation.
Close to three years of conflict have affected social dynamics within communities in affected areas. This includes increased social polarization between IDPs, host communities and returnees in some areas, and often unequal access to basic protection and social safety nets. In this context, minorities and marginalized groups may be particularly disadvantaged.
The crisis significantly impacted vulnerable household economy leading them to resort to negative coping mechanisms such as child marriage and prostitution. Two in 3 children are married before the age of 18 compared to less than 50 per cent before the crisis75. Families marry off children to relieve themselves from the burden of care and in hopes of generating income through dowry to support remaining members of the family.
The risk of injury and death posed by landmines and UXOs, primarily a threat to individual and community safety, continues to be an obstacle for accessing livelihoods and basic services. Services for those disabled by landmines and UXOs are sadly lacking which exposes them to additional vulnerability.
In 2017, over 235 000 people were reached through livelihoods initiatives and Humanitarian Plus initiatives implemented under the New Way of Working, which frames the work of development and humanitarian actors, along with national and local counter-parts, in support of collective outcomes that reduce risk and vulnerability and serve as instalments toward the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals76. Livelihoods opportunities offered under the New Way of Working are increasingly reaching affected populations and significantly contributing to famine prevention efforts and cholera response. In addition to this, more than 3,000 people could return to work as their factory resumed productive activities for the first time since the March 2015 escalation.
A total of 245 000 m2 and 2.7 million m2 of land were respectively surveyed and cleared. Landmine/UXO clearance and increased the physical safety of populations, allowed resumption of productive activities and employment as well as allowing movement of populations and goods in 55 districts across 14 Governorates.
This complex emergency has compounded Yemen’s development needs. Integration of a more holistic response to the crisis in Yemen focusing on resilience-building and on building the foundation for longer-term recovery in the current humanitarian response, envisaged through the New Way of Working is needed to prevent further development stagnation in Yemen. To prevent prospects for long-term aid dependency among Yemenis under the current context in Yemen, Early Recovery remains an essential component of humanitarian response, as it builds foundations for the post-crisis phase, and a return to a sustainable pathway of development.
The 2017 EECR Cluster needs estimation was based on a range of methodology and approaches, including DELPHI expert consultations and secondary data analysis conducted by Cluster partners and other clusters. DELPHI expert consultations brought together sectorial experts from various Governorates to build consensus on sectorial needs in Aden, Mukalla, Sana’a, Al Hudaydah, Ibb, and Sa’ada.
The EECR Cluster also built its needs assessment on assessments conducted by partners. Among them, the UNDP Market Assessment, the ILO’s rapid assessments in informal apprenticeship in Lahj, Abyan, Al Hudaydah and Hajjah, the World Bank Group’s Dynamic Needs Assessment, the Task Force on Population Movement’s 16th Report, as well as other significant studies and analyses conducted by partners.
Contact : Stean Tshiband : firstname.lastname@example.org